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Open Science

Vorschläge zur Förderung von Open Science im Rahmen des OGP

Die Wissenschaftskulturen haben sich fachübergreifend geöffnet und Open Science ist fester Bestandteil im Leitbild guter wissenschaftlicher Praxis. Akademikerinnen und Akademiker nehmen Elemente der Open Science als genuine Bestandteile ihrer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit wahr. Standards der Open Science, etwa kollaborative und kontributive Forschung, sind fest in der akademischen Praxis und Ausbildung implementiert. Öffentlich finanzierte und öffentlich ko-finanzierte Forschungsdaten und Forschungsergebnisse werden stets, privat finanzierte überwiegend offen publiziert, um ihre Wahrnehmbarkeit im akademischen Diskurs und darüber hinaus zu gewährleisten. Rechtliche Probleme offener Nutzung, etwa im Urheberrecht oder dem Datenschutzrecht, sind durch entsprechende rechtliche Schranken für Wissenschaft und Forschung gelöst. Öffentlich zugängliche und technisch barrierefreie Open Science Repositorien dienen der Wissenschaft als Hort der Wissensverteilung und des Diskurses sowie den Bürgern als Möglichkeit am akademischen Diskurs und der Forschung teilzunehmen. Der Gesellschaft im Gesamten dienen sie als Ort der digitalen Langzeitarchivierung und ermöglichen die Transparenz öffentlich verwendeter Forschungsgelder.

Soweit ist es leider noch nicht, aber das ist die Vision bis 2030, die wir in der Arbeitsgruppe “Open Science” des deutschen Nationalen Aktionsplan Open Government Partnership (OGP) formuliert haben. Damit es bis 2030 soweit kommen kann, haben wir jüngst ein Positionspapier zur Förderung von Open Science im Rahmen des europäischen Förderprogramms Horizon 2020 veröffentlicht und jetzt mit direktem Blick auf die Bundesregierung in einem Grundlagenpapier folgende konkrete Maßnahmen zur Förderung von Open Science formuliert:

  • Entwicklung einer Open Science Definition und Strategie, um eine langfristige Öffnung der öffentlich finanzierten oder ko-finanzierten Forschung zu erreichen. Dazu gehört insbesondere die im Rahmen des rechtlich möglichen, verpflichtende Veröffentlichung von Forschungsdaten (Open Data), -ergebnissen (Open Access), -methoden (Open Research) und -software (Open Source / Freie Software) unter freien Lizenzen.
  • Entwicklung und gesetzliche Implementierung einer Open-Science-Rechtsschranke für die freie Nutzung von Forschungsdaten und -ergebnissen im Wissenschaftskontext, die die rechtlichen Hindernisse der Open Science (u.a. Urheberrecht, Datenschutzrecht) befriedigend löst.
  • Aufbau von Open Science Repositories unter Verwendung Offener Technologien (Freie Software und offenen Standards) um technische Barrierefreiheit sowie eine nachhaltige Verfügbarkeit und die Langzeitarchivierung von Forschung zu garantieren.
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Push Free Software and Open Science for Horizon2020

Summary: please help us to get the idea about the importance of Free Software as a condition for Open Science into the mind of stakeholders and decision-takers of the Horizon2020 program. You can do so by participating in the interim evaluation and re-using FSFE’s position paper.

What came to my mind the first times that I read “Open Science” was that this term should not be necessary in the first place. In common understanding as well as in its self-conception, “openness” is the elementary part of all science. “Openness” in a sense that all scientific results shall be published publicly along with experimental settings, methods and anything else that leads to their results. It is exactly this approach that – in theory – gives everyone the chance to reproduce the experiment and get to the same results.

But although this approach of openness might still be the noble objective of any scientist, the general idea of a publicly available science is called into question since at least the de-facto domination of publishers over science journals and the creation of a profit-oriented market-design. It cannot be the point of this blogpost to roll out the problematic situation in that nowadays the consumers and the content creators both have to pay publishers for overpriced science journals, financed with public money. Instead, at this point, most important is that these high prices are contrary to the idea of universal access to science as they give access only to those who can afford it.

Send and receive Open Science?

Fortunately, Open Access came up to do something about this problem. Similar to Free Software, Open Access uses free licenses to offer access to science publications to everyone around the globe. That is why Open Access is an important step towards the universal access of science. Unfortunately, in a digital world, Open Access is just one of many tools that we have to use to achieve an Open Science. Equally important is the format and software that is used. Also, Open Access only covers the final publication and misses to cover the steps that lead to there. This is where Open Science steps in.

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There is no Open Science without the use of open standards and Free Software

99% of science is more than the final publication
99% of science happens before its final publication
Recently, the EU ministers responsible for research and innovation decided unanimously that by 2020, all results and scientific publications of publicly and publicly-private funded research must be freely available. This shall be ensured by the mandatory use of Open Access licenses that guarantee free access to publications. In addition “the data must be made accessible, unless there are well-founded reasons for not doing so, for example intellectual property rights or security or privacy issues”.

This important decision is long overdue and a good step towards opening up scientific results. And to give back to the public what they indirectly paid before with their tax money. However, this EU minister’s decision misses the opportunity to declare and understand software as a part of the research. Means to also include the free availability of the software used for publicly funded research. Indeed, there is not a single word in the press release to cover any informatics, software, “computer aided research” or anything alike. Everything that the ministers seem to care about is the final paper that is published as an article.

But we are in year 2016 and it is time to understand that software is information and knowledge – just as any article is.

Software as integral part of modern research

Software is an integral part of nearly all modern research. Beginning from metering, calculations, demonstrations to following stages of statistics, writings, publications … nearly all steps involved in a research project are in need and covered by the use of software.

What does it help the information society if a scientific paper is published in Open Access but all the steps involved towards creating this publication are built by investments in intransparent, closed and proprietary software solutions and data formats? Especially as the creation of a paper often involves many years of investigation and millions of Euros of fundings.

What does it help the science community, if the software that was used to achieve a result is not transparent? Software is really not without fail: miscalculated prison sentences, hardware scanners that randomly alter written numbers or professional software abuse to cheat on emissions by car manufacturers … – How can a researcher really believe in any result of a software that no one is able to look into and prove it to work correctly?

If the EU ministers responsible for research and innovation really aim at opening up scientific knowledge but keep software out of their scope, they do a very selective choice and only open up the very final stage of any research process. Articles are only able to list outcomes and results of a research process. Not including the software to be freely accessible means no one can see, reproduce or test the process itself or the mathematical methods that have been used to achieve these results.

Most researchers would love to have the software free as well

To understand a result you often need to analyze all parts of it
To understand a result you often need to analyze all parts of it
The EU ministers decision also seems not to be in line with what a majority in the scientific world is waiting for. Because having the software and data that is used for research freely accessible is definitely in interest of many researchers.

As an example, at the end of 2015, I was lucky to have been invited to shape the outcome of the JPI Climate symposium “Designing Comprehensive Open Knowledge Policies to Face Climate Change”. JPI Climate is a collaboration between 17 European countries to coordinate jointly their climate research and fund new transnational research initiatives. Given this transnational, European background, JPI Climate was setting up common Open Knowledge Policies. These shall help to find sustainable ways of archiving and ease the exchange of data and results – which in turn shall boost innovation in climate research. Naturally, JPI Climate was calling their members to publish under Open Access. But in contrast to the EU ministers, the JPI Climate does understand that all the way of the research process until the publication of the final article is just as important as the publication itself:

the symposium’s results confirm that access and availability issues are just one issue within the “openness” approach of “Open Knowledge”/“Open Science”; therefore, comprehensive policies (i.e. tackling the whole research cycle) should encompass measures related to “reuse and re-distribution” of data, information and knowledge and “universal participation” when designing, creating, disseminating and evaluating such data, information and knowledge.

Hence, participants on the common symposium agreed that

4. Research data, metadata, software, methods, etc. funded by public bodies should be open/public. Open licensing for data and software avoids collusion with legal restrictions at national or international level.

[…]

6. Open software/formats (independent from vendors) should be mandatory for data repositories and Data Management Plans (DMPs). Research Funding Organisations should take the lead and foster changes of business models when dealing with data

[…]

In addition to research results and data, open source software (used in the research process) should be mandatory and published under a free license.

Open Science needs Free Software

Obviously, the science community is large steps further than the EU ministers responsible for research and innovation. Many researchers all over Europe already seek for the mandatory use of Free Software in research process and the publication of software whose development was publicly funded. If EU ministers really like to realize their now proclaimed vision that “knowledge should be freely shared”, they should listen to their community and keep to their advise.

It is time to understand that software itself is knowledge and an integral part to create more (scientific) knowledge. And it is time for the European Union to note: There is no Open Science without the use of open standards and Free Software!